Battery Power Requirements for Commercial Communication Satellite Systems

Battery Power Requirements for Commercial Communication Satellite Systems

The power requirements of batteries for military satellites are relatively higher than for commercial satellites. This is all due to the deployment of powerful microwave, fiber optic, and infrared sensors for precise tracking, surveillance, and detection of space-based targets, which are significant for space missions and data transmission needs.

Between 1970 and 2000, the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan and European countries launched a number of communications satellites. Impossible at the functionality and battery power requirements of so many satellites. Therefore, some communication satellites will be described selectively, focusing on the power requirements of the battery.

Battery Power Requirements for Commercial Communication Satellite Systems
Commercial Communication Satellite

The United States launched an advanced communications satellite known as the INTESAT-IV system in the 1990s, which represents the fourth generation of commercial communications satellites and contains the latest radio frequency and digital components with minimal weight, size, and power consumption. The system provides specified communications service requirements and can also be used to support future human spaceflight missions. The frequency operating band and secondary battery power requirements for this particular communications satellite are summarized in Table 1.

frequency bandfrequency bandfrequency bandfrequency band
System parametersSCXKu
RF power (W)15012510050
Battery power (W)450375300400
Solar array output (W)270022501800900

These power estimates assume 30% efficiency for the S, C, and X-band units of the traveling wave tube amplifier (TXVTA) and 25% for the Ku-band units. To charge the secondary battery to full output capability, the solar array must be designed to the power rating specified in the third row of Table 1.

Performance of commercial communications satellite systems. This particular satellite communication system allows to relay communications between Earth Satellite System (ES) and Manned Space (MS) systems. INTESAT-IV was launched shortly after 2000. The system provides multiple voice channels, secure communication lines and high-speed data transfer capabilities. An upgraded version of it was launched around 2004, with significantly improved voice, video and data channels. Improved communications satellites deploy highly efficient and compact CW TWTAs with significantly reduced phase noise. The power requirement of the total battery pack is still less than 525w, and the power rating of the solar array to charge the secondary battery ranges from 5kW for TV satellite to 12kW for TV program and data transmission, as shown in Figure 1. These satellites were launched from 1965 to 1980. Communications satellites launched later will have installed solar array ratings ranging from 10 to 25 kW depending on the number of voice, video and data channels, launch orbit and orbit altitude, and mission duration, with solar panels if the additional cost and complexity are acceptable Or the power output level of the array can be optimized using one-dimensional tracking techniques and centralized equipment.

Battery Power Requirements for Commercial Communication Satellite Systems
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of orbital characteristics of rotating satellites and location of solar cell arrays

In general, rechargeable batteries must be able to provide a direct current (DC) power level of 50~100 W for space-to-space communication links, 100~350 W for ground-to-space communication links, and 100~350 W for space-to-ground communication links Provides 350 ~ 500 W. These power levels of military satellites are likely to increase due to the installation of various electrical, electronic and electro-optical devices and sensors deployed by the satellite. Depending on the reliability requirements and mission duration of the redundant system employed, the total power requirements may increase further. Using alternative voice and data channels, the reduction in DC power consumption can be minimized.