Introduction to Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Introduction to Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are developing and are currently receiving high attention. In addition, the high cost of gasoline, the low mileage per gallon (gal) of gasoline, and the harmful health effects of greenhouse gases produced by gasoline vehicles are forcing drivers to consider EV and HEV vehicles. For these reasons, automakers are keen to embrace EV technology, with many around the world recently unveiling a wide selection of electric vehicles for their latest models. EV technology offers environmentally friendly, noise-free transportation, as well as complete independence from rival gasoline suppliers. These EVs and HEVs require high capacity, reliable rechargeable Tycorun Battery according to specific performance requirements of depth of discharge (DOD), state of charge (SOC), open circuit voltage (OCV), rate of discharge (ROD). Due to the high level of consumer interest in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, several battery manufacturers are looking for rechargeable batteries of the latest designs that are best suited for these vehicles.

The invention of electric and hybrid electric vehicles was demonstrated as early as 1900. Baker electric vehicles, with a top speed of over 22 mile/h, were very popular in the early 20th century [1]. Jay Leno, the host of “The Tonight Show,” owns one of those cars, and it still drives. Walter Baker developed and tested a hybrid electric vehicle using a battery and a charger in the development of the first hybrid electric vehicle (torpedo). In 1902 this particular hybrid electric car exhibited a sprint speed of 75 mph. In terms of battery capabilities, nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) batteries with performance characteristics similar to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in terms of energy density and production cost were developed by Thomas Edison. Battery designers predict that lithium-ion batteries can last for decades, showing acceptable performance degradation.

In 2010, the major automakers supplied a large number of vehicles running on natural gas, but several types of hybrid vehicles and several improved versions of electric vehicles were also advertised in major newspapers. Even upstarts like Zero Air Pollution Vehicles (ZAPs) and Tesla Motors are flexing their muscles, showing their intention to join the auto market in the near future. My research on these cars seems to show that they have significant advantages such as a lower center of gravity, higher gas mileage, improved mechanical integrity and optimum performance. Since the batteries of electric vehicles are generally stored under the floor of the car, electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles will have a lower center of gravity, which is a major advantage, demonstrating better safety, higher reliability and excellent Off-road capability. While EVs and HEVs have several advantages, the availability or location of charging stations may be the biggest challenge for the public to embrace EVs.

Despite their higher sales price and limited operating range compared to gas vehicles, electric vehicles still have a number of advantages. The higher cost of electric vehicles is strictly due to charging infrastructure and lower sales in the right time frame. The concept of hybrid vehicle technology allows owners or users of HEVs or alternative fuel vehicles to sell electricity to the utility grid. The potential advantages of electric vehicles far outweigh their disadvantages. Electric vehicles are best suited for urban driving involving frequent parking maneuvers. These vehicles offer the best torque and lowest center of gravity. The electric motor can be placed next to the wheel. Active stability control becomes easier and more efficient because the electric motor is easier to control in the shortest amount of time, including being able to provide power or blocking capabilities. The most important design features of an all-electric vehicle include the complete elimination of belts, oil changes and the often expensive transmission. All-electric vehicles provide noise-free, pollution-free operation. The wiring of this car has become very simple, reliable and cheap. For fully electric vehicles, heating and air conditioning do not rely on the engine, allowing other critical hardware to be placed in different areas of the vehicle, possibly in unused spaces. The design of fully electric vehicles opens up the possibility of optimizing distributed systems. The placement of an all-electric vehicle battery is more flexible than a gasoline engine and powertrain. The interior temperature of an all-electric vehicle is relatively cooler because there is no internal combustion engine (ICE) that generates significant heat, so there is no or little need for air conditioning while driving.